Harassment is any improper and unwelcome conduct that might reasonably be expected or be perceived to cause offence or humiliation to another person.
Harassment may take the form of words, gestures or actions which tend to annoy, alarm, abuse, demean, intimidate, belittle, humiliate or embarrass another or which create an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment. This has lead to the formulation of anti-harassment policies by several non-government organizations. This study was carried out to find out harassment among women at workplace, types and reasons for harassment generally faced by working women.
A cross-sectional study was carried Anti sexual harassment act pdf study within the Municipal Corporation limits of Mangalore, a coastal city in Karnataka state. The study participants comprised women working in educational institutions, banks, hospitals, and shops as these are
Anti sexual harassment act pdf study establishments where considerable number of women work.
The final Anti sexual harassment act pdf study size came to women. The list of the banks, schools, hospitals, and shopping centers in the study area were obtained from the municipal corporation office.
The study sites were selected by simple random sampling from the list. Finally,
Anti sexual harassment act pdf study study participants were selected by convenient sampling. The data were collected by means of a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire after obtaining the written informed consent from the respondents.
Data was analyzed using SPSS version Chi square test Anti sexual harassment act pdf study used for the analysis and P value less than 0. Table 1 depicts the socio-demographic profile of the respondents and the harassment faced by them at workplace.
It was seen that the younger respondents faced more harassment compared to the older respondents. There was a linear association which was found to be statistically significant. The majority of the respondents who faced harassment were from lower middle and upper lower socio-economic status which was found Anti sexual harassment act pdf study be statistically significant.
It was also found that respondents with less experience faced more harassment as compared to those with more years of experience at workplace which was found to be statistically significant.
Table 2 shows that out of working women interviewed, about The perceived reasons for harassment were — them being more efficient than their male colleagues The type of harassment was mostly verbal Among the respondents who were harassed, This could be because the younger girls are more vulnerable and are unaware about the job requirements, or Anti sexual harassment act pdf study could be due to the fear of losing their job or a hostile atmosphere in their workplace if they complain.
This coincides with a study done in Denmark, where the occupations which were most exposed to the threat of physical violence were nurses, followed by health care workers and teachers. Among the 48 This recent harassment could be explained by the fact that when the women join their new jobs, they are ignorant of their right complain about harassment and afraid of losing jobs.
The reasons perceived by women as the cause of harassment were them being more efficient in their jobs This could be attributed to the fact that males feel less secure about their jobs when their female colleagues are good looking or are more efficient. This also reflects our male dominated society where people still think that males are superior to females be it in the workplace.
Similar results were found in a study done in Croatia among school teachers.
Other studies also substantiate these findings. The fewer written
Anti sexual harassment act pdf study explain the hesitancy of the women to complain since action was taken in only a few cases and it could also be because the women felt it would create a bad working atmosphere. Our study gives an insight into the depth of the workplace harassment among women, which is on the rise because of the increase in number of working women.
Harassment is a serious problem that must be addressed by the government in order to ensure a safe working environment for women. Our sincere acknowledgements are due to all the participants of the study. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Indian J Community Med. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Sep 15; Accepted Mar This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Introduction Harassment is any improper and unwelcome conduct that might reasonably be expected or be perceived to cause offence or humiliation to another person. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional was carried out within the Municipal Corporation limits of Mangalore, a coastal city in Karnataka state.
Results Table 1 depicts the socio-demographic profile of the respondents and the harassment faced by at workplace. Open in a separate window. Conclusion Our study gives an insight into the depth of the workplace harassment among women, which is on the rise because of the increase in number of working women.
Acknowledgments Our sincere acknowledgements are Anti sexual harassment act pdf study to all the participants of the study. Footnotes Source of Support: Nil Conflict of Interest: Gender bias in access to healthcare in Nigeria: A study of end-stage renal disease. Gender issues among South African anaesthetists. S Afr Med J. Government of India — Ministry of Home Affairs: Karnataka Human Development Report.
Human Development in Karnataka — Chapter 2. Violence, bullying and harassment in workplace; European foundation for the improvement of living and working conditions.
Harassment in workplace among school Anti sexual harassment act pdf study Development of a survey. Social hazards on the job: Workplace abuse, sexual harassment, and racial discrimination: Int J Health Serv. Expert group meeting on good practices in legislation on violence against women.
United Nations Division for Advanement of Women. Prevalence of workplace abuse and sexual harassment among female faculty and staff.