Sexual harassment in education in the United States is an unwelcome behavior of a sexual nature that interferes with an American student's ability to learn, study, work or participate in school activities. It is common in middle and high schools in the United States. The definition of sexual harassment includes harassment by both peers and individuals in a position of power relative to the person being harassed.
In schools, though sexual harassment initiated by students is most common, it can also be perpetrated by teachers or other school employees, and the victim can be a 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct, a teacher, or other school employee. While sexual harassment is legally defined as "unwanted" behavior, it has been argued that even consensual sexual interactions between students and teachers constitute harassment because the inherent power differential creates a dynamic in which "mutual 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct is impossible.
In their recent study AAUW on sexual harassment at
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct and universities, the AAUW claimed that while both men and women were targets of sexual harassment, "women are disproportionately negatively affected. The Associated Press reported 2, cases of teacher sexual misconduct between and From to2, teacher credentials were 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct for sexual misconduct.
There were about 3 million teachers at the time. According to surveys conducted by the AAUW in and In the same surveys AAUWit was found that: There are three primary types of sexual harassment found in schools: The most common type is verbal, followed by physical, and nonverbal. Verbal sexual harassment includes unwanted sexual humor, sexual rumors, inappropriate sexual name calling, and homophobic slurs, judging or rating others' body parts, pressure for sexual relationships, and sexual harassment via phone calls.
Nonverbal sexual harassment includes unwanted written sexual communication notes, text messages, lettersunwanted sexual facial expressions or gestures, indecent exposure, and the showing of sexual pictures. Physical sexual harassment includes sexually brushing against someone, having one's clothing pulled or tugged 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct a sexual manner, unwanted sexual touching, and any forced kissing or touching. Most
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct harassing behavior is student-on-student.
One of the most common reasons reported for sexually harassing behavior is
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct the harasser thinks it is funny to do so. In their study, the AAUW found that this was the most common rationale for harassment by boys—59 percent used it.
AAUW, Other researchers assert that the "I thought it was funny" rationale is a fallacy, and the true reasons more with that of a need to assert power and induce fear in others—more in line with bullying. These hazing behaviors develop in school, continue in 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct school and college, eventually moving into the workplace. High schools are addressing this behavior. Peer-to-peer sexual harassment is three times more likely than perpetration by teachers or other school Sexual harassment between peers may also be a result of students trying to conform to expected gender norms created by society.
It can also be used as a tool for gender policing. For example, this could be seen if a male is exhibiting behavior not seen to peers as being masculine, so others may label him with homophobic slurs in order to reinforce gender conformity through a form of nonphysical sexual harassment. Students may exhibit, accept, or tolerate this conforming behavior as to not cause rifts in peer groups.
Developmental causes may also result in sexual harassment among students. Those who are unprepared to interact with those of the opposite sex, are unable to appropriately read social cues, or try to exhibit sexual interest in another while not understanding appropriate boundaries, may end up engaging in sexually harassing behavior.
And a major study commissioned by the U. Department of Education found that nearly 10 percent of U. Indeed, one critic has claimed that sexual harassment and abuse
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct teachers is times more frequent than abuse by priests.
A 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct analysis of a series of surveys conducted for the AAUW and administered to a representative sample 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct 2, 8th through 11th-grade American students in showed that 9. The students were asked if and how often they had experienced 14 types of behaviors which constitute sexual harassment. They then indicated who harassed them students, teachers, school employees.
Nonphysical sexual abuse e. Girls were more likely to report educator sexual harassment than boys Regional studies found a different prevalence of sexual harassment by teachers. For example, in a survey of high school graduates in North Carolina in the graduates were given a definition of sexual harassment and asked if they had experienced sexual harassment during their high school years.
Most complaints about teachers' behavior tend to center around what is felt to be inappropriate speech in a class or discussion, such as using sexist or sexual references to make a point. However, in some cases, bonds and relationships can form between teacher and student beyond class discussions.
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct and teachers can be often quite intimate and intense as they share common passions and interests.
Students are dependent on their teachers' approval for academic success, opportunities, and later career success. Such closeness and intimacy can blur the professional and lead people—both school employee and student alike—to step over the line.
They are expected to design teaching programmes and carry out their teaching duties to help their students develop as mature thinkers. This may close working relationships in tutorials or laboratories, individual meetings to discuss projects or essays,
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct more casual occasions for intellectual give and take.
For impressionable young students, the boundaries between intellectual development 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct personal life may become blurred.
In this situation, some academics easily move from intellectual to personal 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct sexual relationships. A teacher who harasses a student may be doing because he or she is experiencing the stress from various personal problems or life traumas, such as marital trouble or divorce, a professional crisis, financial difficulties, medical problems, or the death of a spouse or child.
Even though the behavior is unacceptable, it can be a symptom of the effects of such stresses, and may stop if the situation changes, or the pressures are removed.
There has been debate over whether or not sexual interactions and relationships between students and teachers constitute sexual abuse. While sexual relationships with pupils is illegal in the U. Literature professor Jane Gallop argues that students learn more effectively
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct a sexually charged atmosphere.
In her book, she describes the separate occasions she slept with two male professors on her dissertation committee, and when she first began sleeping with her own students as an assistant professor. In her September essay in Harper's MagazineThe Higher Yearningacademic Christina Nehring celebrated the educative nature of such sexual relationships: However, in recent years, there 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct been controversy over even consensual sexual interactions between 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct and teachers, especially within the last decade.
Gallop, However, it is this parallel that many say is the reason teacher-pupil sexual contact 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct relations are immoral because they are too closely akin to incestand similar long-term damages can
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct. Many experts argue that even consensual sexual interactions between students and teachers constitute sexual harassment.
The most commonly expressed concern is over whether "mutual consent" can exist in a relationship where there is such a disparity in power between the people involved. Because of this, more and more schools are adopting policies that forbid amorous relationships between students and professors "in the instructional context" even when they are consenting Smithson, Physical intimacy 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct students is not now and never has
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct acceptable behavior for academicians.
It cannot be defended or explained away by evoking fantasies of devoted professors and sophisticated students being 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct the right to 'true love. In an interview with the Chronicle of Higher Education, a dean at the University of Texas at Austin stated he'd like to crack down on consensual relationships between professors and students. These relationships poison the whole academic well. Dzeich argues that much damage occurs because of the betrayal by someone that the student trusted and respected.
Moreover, seduction attempts which are masked by pretenses to academic and personal attention 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct particularly damaging because the student feels complicit in their own abuse.
Another consequence is that, when 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct is an accepted behavior between teachers and students, it can be more difficult to raise concerns about sexual harassment. For example, unwanted sexual advances by a professor may be intimidating or even frightening; however, if sexual relations between staff and students is common at the school, it will be difficult for a student to identify this behavior 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct harassment.
Sexual relations between teachers and students raises concerns about the abuse of trust and conflicts of interest—and these points are not usually covered in sexual harassment policies. The question of abuse of trust comes into play when sexual relations between teacher and student are present. This occurs when the trust associated with a professional relationship is destroyed because of non-professional actions or requests for actions.
Martin writes, "Teachers are in a position of authority and trust to foster the intellectual development of their students. When they engage in sexual relations with a student, they violate that trust implicit in a professional teacher-student relationship. Conflicts of interest can arise when the professional responsibilities of a teacher are affected, or appear to be affected, by a special personal relationship with a student.
These can include 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct favoritism towards a student sexually involved with the teacher, or hostility towards a student due to a past relationship. If a teacher is sexually involved with a student, colleagues may feel pressured to give preferential treatment to the student, such as better marks, extensions essays, extra help, academic When there are multiple relationships between several staff and students, the possibilities for conflict of interest are enormous.
Even if there is no favoritism or hostility, it can be perceived by others to be exhibited. Like all other students, students with disabilities experience sexual harassment in school as both victims and perpetrators.
Some disabilities could cause a lack of control over impulses, a lack of awareness of the effects 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct their words and actions, and a lack of social skills needed to avoid sexually harassing behavior. In some circumstances, a student with disabilities could exhibit a behavior that would constitute sexual harassment without intentionally trying to be malicious or inappropriate.
In these cases, where a disability could lead to sexually harassing behaviors, positive behavior intervention plans are often put into place by a team including parents, school administrators, general education teachers, special education teachers, school psychologists, and counselors. These types of plans could also be made during Individualized Education Program meetings regarding the student.
In their report, "Drawing the Line: Students experience a wide range of effects from sexual harassment that impact their academic development 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct Students may experience multiple effects or just one. The 5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct range of experiences lowers the percentage of
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct who experience any particular effect. Studies have shown that if the sexual harassment was done by a male, both male and female victims experienced behavioral problems, in contrast to if the female was the perpetrator, where the behavioral problems occurred less.
Being absent from school frequently, having difficulties concentrating on school work, and performing poorly on academic work often
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct. Other effects include getting into trouble at school, changing the route in which one gets to and from school, and stopping doing activities and sports.
A reanalysis the data found that victims of sexual harassment by teachers
5 students 1 teacher sexual misconduct experiencing adverse health effects because of the abuse. In addition to negatively affecting health outcomes, teacher sexual abuse influenced the victims' academic performance.
Some sources have discussed a double standard regarding the conduct of female versus male teachers. When it comes to sexual harassment or sexual abuse cases involving a male teacher as the perpetrator to a female student, severe punishments are often the result.
According to David Ring, a lawyer working with sexual abuse cases, it is not uncommon for the male teachers to be convicted, face jail time, or owe partial civil damages to the student victim depending on the severity of the case. When a female teacher is the perpetrator of sexual harassment to a male student, there are arguments that the female teachers are given lighter sentences and the male victims are given lower amounts of compensation due to the reasoning that teenage males would be willing to have sexual encounters with older, female teachers as a response to changes in their hormones.
It has been argued that the effects of pupil-teacher sexual harassment vary depending on the gender of the student and the harasser.
In some states in the U.
Many assert that most boys would be happy to have a teacher show sexual interest in
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