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All data generated or analysed during Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction study are included in this published article. Hypercholesterolaemia HC is a major risk factor for ischemic heart disease and is also known to be a risk factor for erectile dysfunction ED. ED caused by HC is thought to be related to HC-induced oxidative stress damage in the vascular endothelium and erectile tissue.

KH is an herbal formula with a strong antioxidant effect.

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Normal control group rats were fed normal chow diet. Subsequently, intracavernous pressure ICP and mean arterial pressure MAP were measured, and lipid profiles, expression of endothelial eNOS and neuronal nNOS nitric oxide synthase, oxidative stress 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosineand Jin Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction ju wife sexual dysfunction of smooth muscle cells and collagen fibres were evaluated in the serum and corpora tissue.

The current study shows that the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of KH are effective in ameliorating ED by restoring endothelial dysfunction and suggests that KH may be a potential therapeutic agent for ED by correcting the fundamental cause of ED. Penile erection is a complex physiological process that occurs through a cascade of neurogenic, Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction, and humoral events.

To maintain a penile erection for satisfactory sexual intercourse, important preconditions are necessary, including proper cavernosal innervation, maintenance of endothelial function, and well-functioning erectile tissue.

Erectile dysfunction EDdefined as the consistent inability to attain or maintain a penile erection of sufficient quality to permit satisfactory sexual intercourse [ 1 ], is a highly prevalent global health problem with considerable impact on the quality of life of middle-aged men [ 2 ].

ED can be induced by various causes, including Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction, neurogenic, hormonal, cavernosal, iatrogenic, and psychogenic causes. However, the most common cause is likely related to vascular abnormalities caused by endothelial dysfunction and erectile tissue dysfunction [ 34 ]. Hypercholesterolaemia HC is a metabolic disorder characterized by elevated levels of total cholesterol TC in the blood.

HC may develop as a consequence of an unbalanced diet, obesity, inherited genetic disease familial hypercholesterolaemiaor another disease e.

Associated Data

It is well known that HC is a major risk factor for the development of Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction and subsequent ischemic heart disease [ 6 ]. Elevated serum cholesterol and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C levels are also associated with an increased risk of ED [ 7 ]. The relationship between ED and HC has been demonstrated by several studies [ 89 ].

Although the Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction underlying the increased ED risk by HC has not been clearly elucidated, Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction studies reported an association between HC-induced oxidative stress damage in vascular endothelium and erectile Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction and ED [ 10 — 12 ]. KH is an herbal formula composed of Cornus officinalis Sieb. Several studies have reported Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction each herb or various combinations of these herbs have a number of beneficial properties, including antioxidant [ 13 — 18 ], anti-inflammatory [ 1519 ], anti-apoptotic [ 172021 ], anti-fibrotic [ 152223 ], and hypolipidemic effects [ 2425 ] in multiple diseases.

These herbs have been widely used in Korea as medicines for many Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction. Ojayounjonghwon, an herbal formula described in Dong Ui Bo Gam a representative of Korean traditional medicine booksincludes four of the above herbs, with the exception of Cornus officinalis Sieb. KH is a new herbal formula Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction is a modified form of Ojayounjonghwon. In addition, Sohn et al.

We hypothesized the improvement of erectile function by KH treatment was attributable to its antioxidant effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of HC on the quality of erections and to evaluate the effects of KH treatment in a rat model of ED induced by HC.

The major ingredients of KH are fruits obtained from five plants: Andong, Koreaand identified by one of the authors S.

Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction extract was filtered, and the liquid from the filtrates was removed by a rotary evaporator and a spray dryer. Seoul, Koreaa venture company that develops Oriental herbal medicines, developed this product as a health supplement.

The presence of the marker compound for each plant was confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC. HPLC chromatogram of each plant.

Animals were housed three per plastic cage and identified by the presence or absence of ear punches. After ICP measurement, blood from the internal carotid artery and corporal tissue were sampled. Sample cholesterol concentrations were determined by interpolation from a standard curve.

Rats were anaesthetised with an intraperitoneal injection of 0. With Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction rat in the supine position, the penis was dissected, and the corpus cavernosum and crus of the penis were exposed.

A low, midline abdominal incision was made to access the pelvis, and the pelvic ganglion lateral to the right prostate was exposed. For the measurement of ICP, a heparinised gauge butterfly needle was inserted in the corpus cavernosum of penile proximal portion after the penile skin was degloved and the corpus cavernosum identified. Systemic MAP was continuously monitored via a gauge polyethyl tube placed in the right carotid artery.

Each gauge butterfly needle was inserted in the right Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction left penile crus for recording ICP. After the stimulation test, the corpus cavernosum Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction removed and divided in two. The first part was cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen, and the other part was fixed in formalin. Masson Trichrome staining was performed in paraffin-embedded corporal tissue sections. After staining, the colour distribution of the muscle tissue was approximated using Adobe Photoshop CS 8.

The entire colour distribution of the image was calculated and the muscle tissue distribution was selected and expressed as red in colour [ 28 ]. There was variation in our calculations due to colour overlays and ambiguity of the Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction spectrum in the muscle tissues. Proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis SDS-PAGE and Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction transferred to membranes.

After washing, membranes were incubated with horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies Santa Cruz Biotechnology. The paraffin sections of corpora tissue were immunostained with the following primary antibodies: The 8-OHdG standard 0.

Tissue sample concentration was calculated from a standard curve and was corrected for DNA concentration [ 28 ]. Data were analysed using SPSS A p -value less than 0. Over the course of the experiment, body weight gain was significantly higher in the HFC group than in the control group. Intracavernous pressure ICP in response to electrical stimulation Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction the cavernous nerve in Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction each experimental group.

Compared to the control Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction, the HFC group exhibited decreased corpora Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction smooth muscle content and increased collagen deposition Fig.

There were no differences in total eNOS protein expression observed among the three groups. Phosphorylated-endothelial nitric oxide synthase eNOS protein expression in corpora tissue. In the dorsal penile nerve, expression of nNOS was analysed by immunohistochemical staining Fig. Immunostaining of neuronal nitric oxide synthase nNOS in the dorsal penile nerve.

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The main findings of the present study were as follows: Although the precise mechanism underlying HC-associated ED has not been clearly elucidated, several studies have reported Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction findings in men and animals with HC. These findings included impairment of endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent relaxations of the corpus cavernosum, decreased Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction endothelial cell content, altered smooth muscle cell function, and increased collagen content [ 103132 ].

These results are thought to be related to oxidative stress Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction by HC in the vascular endothelium and erectile tissue [ 10 — 12 ]. Activated NAD P H oxidase and eNOS uncoupling are known to lead to the formation of vascular superoxide anions, which induces an imbalance between the formation of superoxide anions and the detoxification of superoxide anions by antioxidant defence systems.

In addition, superoxide anions may directly inactivate NO and decrease its bioavailability.

NO is the most important neurotransmitter mediating the relaxation of Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction smooth muscle layer present in the corpus cavernosum [ 1319 ]. NO is an endothelium-derived relaxation factor and plays an important role in the regulation of the bioavailability of NO.

NOS exists in three isoforms: NO is produced by eNOS in the endothelium of the corpus cavernosum and penile artery, and it is secreted form nonadrenergic and noncholinergic nerve endings [ 20 Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction. NO and superoxide anions can react to form reactive nitrogen species, such as the highly toxic molecule peroxynitrite. Peroxynitirite may cause Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction damage to DNA, proteins, and lipids, as well as eNOS uncoupling, release of vasoconstrictors, apoptosis, tissue injury, and inflammation [ 34 ].

Therefore, oxidative stress promoted by an increase in superoxide anions may impair the expression of eNOS and nNOS [ 14152223 ], reduce eNOS activity and NO production [ 15 — 1722233536 ], increase caveolin-1 expression Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction 21 ] and its interaction with Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction [ 11 ], and dysregulate cGMP signal transduction pathways [ 12 ].

Taken together, these findings suggest that ED occurs in HC. These findings suggest that HC due to a high fat and cholesterol diet induced oxidative stress, leading to vascular endothelial and corporal tissue damage. The beneficial effects of KH, which are due to its antioxidant properties, have been reported in several studies. Furthermore, in a cryptorchidism-induced rat model, KH treatment alleviated elevations in the levels of heat shock protein and germ Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress [ 38 ].

In particular, decreased Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction, a predominant marker of oxidative damage to Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction, seemed to indicate that the antioxidant activity of KH prevented oxidative injury under oxidative stress conditions. PDE5i acts to block the degradative action of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type5 on cGMP in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels supplying the corpus cavernosum of the penis.

The most common cause of ED is thought be related to vascular abnormalities caused by endothelial and erectile tissue dysfunction [ 34 ], and we demonstrated that the antioxidant effect of KH led to improved erectile function by reducing endothelial and corporal tissue dysfunction from oxidative stress.

We did not examine, however, why the lipid profile was improved by KH treatment. Although some reports have Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction the antiobesity and hypolipidemic effects of Lycium chinense Miller and Rubus coreanus Miquel [ 2425 ], there is little scholarly evidence available that would explain the improvement in lipid profile seen in our study.

Thus, further study should be conducted to elucidate the hypolipidemic mechanisms of this formula. We believe that the antioxidant properties and hypolipidemic effect of KH make it an effective treatment option for Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction, as it can correct a fundamental cause of ED. HJ drafted the manuscript, and participated in every part of the experiments. WJB participated in the design of the study and helped in the experiments and drafting of the manuscript.

EBK participated in the design, performed biochemical assays, and conducted statistical analysis. Jin mo ju wife sexual dysfunction participated in the design of the study and performed experiments. All of the authors read and approved the final manuscript. Woong Jin Bae, Email: Su Jin Kim, Email: Hyuk Jin Cho, Email: Seung Mo Yuk, Email: Dong Seok Han, Email: Chang Shik Youn, Email: Eun Bi Kwon, Email: Sung Yeoun Hwang, Email: Sae Woong Kim, Email:

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